Publications

    Gonzalo Delamaza, 2008 

    In recent years, human rights have become a prominent issue in politics and society, creating a new idea of concept of what human rights entails, extending to include not only social rights, but economic and political rights as well. As human rights have become a central element of international policy, it is important to highlight instances where great strides in their development have occurred. This book, part of the Learning from Innovations series, presents case studies from eight countries. From China, South Africa, and Brazil, the issue of the rights of women and girls is addressed. Indigenous rights are the focus of the contributions from Chile and the Indian Nations. A case from Kenya presents youth rights and human rights and the justice system is the topic of the contributions from Mexico and Peru. The Learning from Innovations series aims to disseminate some of the lessons that are being learned by comparing innovation in the ten partner programs of the Liaison Group for Innovations in Governance and Public Action.

    Ceciliah Kinuthia-Njenge, 2008  

    The Millennium Development Goals have become a universal framework for development and a means for developing countries and their development partners to work together in pursuit of a common vision. The challenge of achieving the Millennium Development Goals in all regions of the developing countries by 2015 is a daunting one. Unfortunately, many of these countries are behind the MDG targets. Success is possible but there is a clear need for more targeted interventions and strategies for greater localization of the MDGs. There is still a dire need for sound local governance, enhanced productive capacities, effective policies, strategies and technical and financial support. There is increasing awareness that sustainable development will only be enhanced if processes at the local level are strengthened.

    Fostered by the Ford Foundation in the mid-1980s, the Innovation in Local Governance Award Programme now exists in Brazil, Chile, China, the Indian Nations of the USA, Mexico, Peru, Philippines, South Africa, East Africa, and the United States. The programmes are dedicated to identifying and disseminating experiences that are making significant contribution to increasing service provision, broadening citizenship, and improving governance at local levels. In East Africa, UNHABITAT initiated the "Mashariki Innovations in Local Governance Award Programme" (MILGAP) in three of the East African countries-Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania. MILGAP recognizes innovative practices in local governance and through this award, enabling innovative ideas to reach a wider audience and help reinforce the ideals of UNHABITAT's Campaign on Urban Governance and the goal of eradicating poverty through improved urban governance.

    This book, part of the Learning from Innovations series, was prepared by UNHABITAT's MILGAP programme and provides regional perspectives and different approaches to improving local governance using selected case studies from Brazil, Philippines, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Indian Nations in the U.S. and China. The discussions are centered around local innovations enacted to realize the MDGs. These call for effective and inclusive local development practices to enhance the abilities of the local actors by equipping them with the capacities to plan, implement, and monitor activities in a participatory manner. The Learning from Innovations series aims to disseminate some of the lessons that are being learned by comparing innovation in the ten partner programs of the Liaison Group for Innovations in Governance and Public Action.

    Yang Xuedong, 2008 

    Participation is an integrated part of development. By mobilizing public participation, development can win support and clarify its goal. As for social groups, especially disadvantaged groups, they influence the process of development and share its fruits through participating. How to mobilize and sustain public participation has always been an important issue for development. In addition to institutional and technological obstacles, there are social obstacles hindering public participation in development. In spite of views to the contrary, numerous cases from development have shown that the poor can participate in public affairs, in a manner that promotes public governance, if there are practicable mechanisms connecting their interests with public affairs and coordinating their opinions and actions. This book, part of the Learning from Innovations series, offers examples of designing mechanisms for participation from four Latin American countries: Brazil, Peru, Mexico, and Chile. The Learning from Innovations series aims to disseminate some of the lessons that are being learned by comparing innovation in the ten partner programs of the Liaison Group for Innovations in Governance and Public Action. The Fund for Agricultural Development (FUNDAT) was established in Tupandi, a town in Brazil. It helps local residents with agricultural development. In Coatepec, Mexico, local government initiated the "Program for Payment of Environmental Forestry Services in Coatepec" to protect forests and ensure the water supply for approximately 50,000 inhabitants in 22 municipalities. In the rural Andes area of Ranra (Junin), Peru, local people rely on the irrigation system to increase productivity. In Lampa, Chile, local government runs the local environmental management program with financial support of UNDP. Each of the four innovations presented in this book have designed practicable mechanisms to mobilize and sustain participation of concerned groups, especially local residents. The cases presented include analysis of other factors, including individual innovators, capacity training, and strong and sustainable financing.

     

    China Urbanizes: Consequences, Strategies, and Policies
    Saich, Anthony J., and Shahid Yusuf, ed. 2008. China Urbanizes: Consequences, Strategies, and Policies. World Bank Publications. Visit Publisher's Site Abstract
    Over the next 10-15 years, China's urbanization rate is expected to rise from 43 percent to well over 50 percent, adding an additional 200 million mainly rural migrants to the current urban population of 560 million. How China copes with such a large migration flow will strongly influence rural-urban inequality, the pace at which urban centers expand their economic performance, and the urban environment. The growing population will necessitate a big push strategy to maintain a high rate of investment in housing and the urban physical infrastructure and urban services. To finance such expansion will require a significant strengthening and diversification of China's financial system.

    Organized by Kay L. Schlozman, April 2007 

    With the 2008 political season starting to heat up, The Ash Institute for Democratic Governance and Innovation and Visiting Fellow Prof. Kay Schlozman of Boston College took a look at the ways in which political arrangement impact citizenship in an April 27 workshop, "Practicing Democracy: How Political Arrangements Promote Equal Citizenship...or Not." The daylong workshop examined four key areas of political arrangements: political money and campaign finance; citizenship and enfranchisement; representing groups; and ballot integrity and prevention of electoral corruption. Experts from the Kennedy School of Government and across the county discussed American democratic practices in the context of political arrangements in other democracies-both long-established ones and, where appropriate, emerging ones. "Political arrangements can have consequences for equal citizenship in various ways," Schlozman explained; "for example, by controlling who is considered a citizen or which citizens have the right to participate fully in governing, or by facilitating or inhibiting the conversion of market resources into political influence."

    Decentralizing Governance: Emerging Concepts and Practices
    Cheema, G. Shabbir, and Dennis A. Rondinelli, ed. 2007. Decentralizing Governance: Emerging Concepts and Practices. Brookings Institution Press. Visit Publisher’s Site Abstract

    G. Shabbir Cheema and Dennis A. Rondinelli, editors, Brookings Institution Press, 2007

    The trend toward greater decentralization of governance activities, now accepted as commonplace in the West, has become a worldwide movement. Today's world demands flexibility, adaptability, and the autonomy to bring those qualities to bear. In this thought-provoking book, experts in government and public management trace the evolution and performance of decentralization concepts, from the transfer of authority within government to the sharing of power, authority, and responsibilities among broader governance institutions. The contributors to Decentralizing Governance assess emerging concepts such as devolution and capacity building; they also detail factors driving the decentralization movement such as the ascendance of democracy, economic globalization, and technological progress.

    Informal Institutions and Rural Development in China

    Biliang Hu, Routledge, 2007

    China's successful transition from a centrally planned economy to a socialist market economy, with rapid growth in rural areas 1980s, is a consequence of the impact of both formal and informal institutions. Hitherto, most work undertaken on this issue has focused on formal institutions. This book shows the great importance of informal institutions on the economic and social development of rural China. It examines the relationship between informal institutions and rural development in China since the end of the 1970s, focusing in particular on three major informal institutions: village trust and rotating savings and credit associations (ROSCAs), guanxi community and 'integrating village with company' (IVWC) governance.

    Decentralizing Governance: Emerging Concepts and Practices
    Cheema, G. Shabbir, and Dennis A. Rondinelli, ed. 2007. Decentralizing Governance: Emerging Concepts and Practices. Brookings Institution Press. Publisher's Version Abstract
    The trend toward greater decentralization of governance activities, now accepted as commonplace in the West, has become a worldwide movement. Today's world demands flexibility, adaptability, and the autonomy to bring those qualities to bear. In this thought-provoking book, experts in government and public management trace the evolution and performance of decentralization concepts, from the transfer of authority within government to the sharing of power, authority, and responsibilities among broader governance institutions. The contributors to Decentralizing Governance assess emerging concepts such as devolution and capacity building; they also detail factors driving the decentralization movement such as the ascendance of democracy, economic globalization, and technological progress.
    Economic Reform and Cross-Strait Relations: Taiwan and China in the WTO
    Chang, Julian, and Steven M. Goldstein. 2007. Economic Reform and Cross-Strait Relations: Taiwan and China in the WTO. World Scientific Publishing. Visit Publisher's Site Abstract
    The book begins with an introduction which analyzes the state of Cross-Strait economic and political relations on the eve of dual accession to the WTO, and briefly introduces the chapters which follow. The first chapter discusses the concessions made by both sides in their accession agreements and is followed by two chapters which describe the manner in which the Taiwan economy was reformed to achieve compliance as well as the specific, restrictive trade regime that was put into place to manage mainland trade. The next two chapters deal with the implications of that restrictive trade regime for the Taiwan economy in Asia and with the nature of the interactions between the two sides within the WTO. The final four chapters of the volume examine the impact of membership on four sectors of the economy: finance; agriculture; electronics; and automobiles.
    Full Disclosure: The Perils and Promise of Transparency
    Fung, Archon, Mary Graham, and David Weil. 2007. Full Disclosure: The Perils and Promise of Transparency . Cambridge University Press. Visit Publisher's Site Abstract
    Which SUVs are most likely to roll over? What cities have the unhealthiest drinking water? Which factories are the most dangerous polluters? What cereals are the most nutritious? In recent decades, governments have sought to provide answers to such critical questions through public disclosure to force manufacturers, water authorities, and others to improve their products and practices. Corporate financial disclosure, nutritional labels, and school report cards are examples of such targeted transparency policies. At best, they create a light-handed approach to governance that improves markets, enriches public discourse, and empowers citizens. But such policies are frequently ineffective or counterproductive. Based on an analysis of eighteen U.S. and international policies, Full Disclosure shows that information is often incomplete, incomprehensible, or irrelevant to consumers, investors, workers, and community residents. To be successful, transparency policies must be accurate, keep ahead of disclosers' efforts to find loopholes, and, above all, focus on the needs of ordinary citizens.
    Which SUVs are most likely to roll over? What cities have the unhealthiest drinking water? Which factories are the most dangerous polluters? What cereals are the most nutritious? In recent decades, governments have sought to provide answers to such critic
    Which SUVs are most likely to roll over? What cities have the unhealthiest drinking water? Which factories are the most dangerous polluters? What cereals are the most nutritious? In recent decades, governments have sought to provide answers to such critical questions through public disclosure to force manufacturers, water authorities, and others to improve their products and practices. Corporate financial disclosure, nutritional labels, and school report cards are examples of such targeted transparency policies. At best, they create a light-handed approach to governance that improves markets, enriches public discourse, and empowers citizens. But such policies are frequently ineffective or counterproductive. Based on an analysis of eighteen U.S. and international policies, Full Disclosure shows that information is often incomplete, incomprehensible, or irrelevant to consumers, investors, workers, and community residents. To be successful, transparency policies must be accurate, keep ahead of disclosers' efforts to find loopholes, and, above all, focus on the needs of ordinary citizens.
    What a Mighty Power We Can Be: African American Fraternal Groups and the Struggle for Racial Equality

    Theda Skocpol, Ariane Liazos, & Marshall Ganz, Princeton University Press, 2006 

    From the nineteenth through the mid-twentieth centuries, millions of American men and women participated in fraternal associations – self-selecting brotherhoods and sisterhoods that provided aid to members, enacted group rituals, and engaged in community service. Even more than whites did, African Americans embraced this type of association; indeed, fraternal lodges rivaled churches as centers of black community life in cities, towns, and rural areas alike. Using an unprecedented variety of secondary and primary sources – including old documents, pictures, and ribbon-badges found in eBay auctions – this book tells the story of the most visible African American fraternal associations. The authors demonstrate how African American fraternal groups played key roles in the struggle for civil rights and racial integration. Between the 1890s and the 1930s, white legislatures passed laws to outlaw the use of important fraternal names and symbols by blacks. But blacks successfully fought back. Employing lawyers who in some cases went on to work for the NAACP, black fraternalists took their cases all the way to the Supreme Court, which eventually ruled in their favor. At the height of the modern Civil Rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s, they marched on Washington and supported the lawsuits through lobbying and demonstrations that finally led to legal equality. This unique book reveals a little-known chapter in the story of civic democracy and racial equality in America.

    Parents as Teachers: Missouri – 1987 Innovations Winner 

    In the early 1980s, Missouri’s director of early childhood education launched a novel parent education pilot project designed to increase children’s kindergarten readiness and support family well-being by sending specially trained educators on monthly home visits to help parents foster their babies’ early development. By 1985, when an evaluation touted strong results for the pilot, the Missouri legislature already had made the program – dubbed Parents as Teachers – a mandatory offering of school districts statewide. Soon after, the St. Louis-based Parents as Teachers National Center, formed to oversee the state program and respond to outside inquiries, became an independent nonprofit. From the start, the National Center staff built quality controls into program design and the training of parent educators while simultaneously embracing rapid growth; by 1999 Parents as Teachers programs served more than 500,000 children in the U.S. and six foreign countries. But despite such quality control efforts, the flexibility and adaptability that aided fast replication left the National Center with no effective way to manage or monitor the more than 2,000 sites worldwide. As a result, the National Center was forced to take a hard look at its replication model, its oversight role, and at how the center could better monitor and improve program quality.

    This two-case series allows discussion of key issues facing growing nonprofits, in particular, weighing the tradeoffs inherent in different replication strategies; managing the tension between rapid growth and quality control; and analyzing how political and funding constraints can impact program design. While the (A) case addresses replication, training, organizational structures, and program design, the (B) case focuses on questions around evaluation, program fidelity, and implementation of quality standards.

    Parents as Teachers: Missouri – 1987 Innovations Winner 

    In the early 1980s, Missouri’s director of early childhood education launched a novel parent education pilot project designed to increase children’s kindergarten readiness and support family well-being by sending specially trained educators on monthly home visits to help parents foster their babies’ early development. By 1985, when an evaluation touted strong results for the pilot, the Missouri legislature already had made the program – dubbed Parents as Teachers – a mandatory offering of school districts statewide. Soon after, the St. Louis-based Parents as Teachers National Center, formed to oversee the state program and respond to outside inquiries, became an independent nonprofit. From the start, the National Center staff built quality controls into program design and the training of parent educators while simultaneously embracing rapid growth; by 1999 Parents as Teachers programs served more than 500,000 children in the U.S. and six foreign countries. But despite such quality control efforts, the flexibility and adaptability that aided fast replication left the National Center with no effective way to manage or monitor the more than 2,000 sites worldwide. As a result, the National Center was forced to take a hard look at its replication model, its oversight role, and at how the center could better monitor and improve program quality.

    This two-case series allows discussion of key issues facing growing nonprofits, in particular, weighing the tradeoffs inherent in different replication strategies; managing the tension between rapid growth and quality control; and analyzing how political and funding constraints can impact program design. While the (A) case addresses replication, training, organizational structures, and program design, the (B) case focuses on questions around evaluation, program fidelity, and implementation of quality standards.

    Steven J. Kelman, October 2006 

    During the past several years the most aggressive effort in the history of government has been made in the United Kingdom to use an innovative public management tool – the use of performance metrics and performance goals in the management of public sector organizations – both to improve the performance of public-sector organizations and also to recast some of the terms of democratic deliberation in the UK. As a pioneer in this innovation, the UK example may provide lessons for other governments as they seek to further implement this innovation. Professor Kelman’s research, largely focusing on interviews with managers within UK government, seeks to discover how United Kingdom central government institutions have gone about trying to influence the performance of frontline organizations that must actually meet these targets.

    Chris Pineda, March 2006 

    Faith-based organizations, of all sizes, have long played an essential role in the provision of social services in the United States, at times in partnership with government. Indeed, some of these organizations are very well-known: Catholic Charities, Lutheran Social Services, and United Jewish Communities, to name a few. These large and nationally prominent faith organizations, however, should be differentiated from smaller organizations with faith-affiliation that are based in local communities across the country. The latter organizations can more rightly be called faith-based community organizations (FBCOs). In January 2001, President George W. Bush established the White House Office of FaithBased and Community Initiatives, by executive order, to “strengthen and expand the role of FBCOs in providing social services.” Since that time, President Bush has also urged state governments to create state offices of faith-based initiatives in order to encourage state and local government partnerships with faith-based community organizations.1 Many states have heeded the President’s call and begun to engage their state’s FBCOs in new ways around long-standing community problems arising from poverty and other issues. From a “liaison to the faith community” to a full-blown office with several staff members and initiatives underway, states have opted to engage their faith communities in vastly different ways. This paper is a summary of the efforts by states to engage their FBCOs. Specifically, the paper provides (1) background information on the most active state offices and faith community liaisons; (2) an overview of the best practices employed in the states; (3) a description of one current challenge—engaging sectarians FBCOs; and (4) a brief examination on how one state engages its FBCOs. It is our hope that these findings will be useful to governors and other state officials interested in these types of cross-sector partnerships.

    Vietnam Program, August 2006 

    This report records the findings of a mission to Cambodia sponsored by the UNDP and UNICEF. The objective of the mission was to assess the present state of education in Cambodia and to make recommendations for how new investment might be used effectively to promote continued reform through institutional innovation. The mission was convened against the backdrop of ongoing negotiations between the U.S. and Cambodia over several PL-480 “humanitarian“ loans made to the government of Lon Nol (1970-1975). There is bipartisan interest in the U.S. Congress in allocating these payments to support Cambodia's continued development. It has been suggested that if and when Cambodia agrees to a repayment scheme, the United States government might use these repayments to endow a special vehicle to support education in Cambodia.

    John D. Donahue, February 2006 

    In a phrase coined by Lord Bryce and popularized by Justice Louis Brandeis, America's separate states are seen as “laboratories of democracy,“ giving the United States 50 channels for generating fresh new approaches to public problems. The potential advantages are apparent. But how fully this potential is realized depends on how rapidly and reliably innovations developed in each “laboratory“ diffuse to other states. As the literature on the diffusion of innovations is limited, the archives of the Innovations in American Government Awards offer a promising but mostly untapped data set for exploring the replication of valuable innovations. In this publication, Donahue identifies state-level award winners and traces the pace and pattern of their diffusion.

    Susannah Hopkins Leisher, Stefan Nachuk; 2006 

    The nine Making Services Work for the Poor case studies synthesized in this paper reviewed innovations in service delivery at the local level in Indonesia in the wake of decentralization. It is hoped that this synthesis will be useful to donors and government in and other countries interested in practical ideas for improving local service delivery.

    Empowered Participation: Reinventing Urban Democracy

    Archon Fung, Princeton University Press, 2006 

    Every month in every neighborhood in Chicago, residents, teachers, school principals, and police officers gather to deliberate about how to improve their schools and make their streets safer. Residents of poor neighborhoods participate as much or more as those from wealthy ones. All voices are heard. Since the meetings began more than a dozen years ago, they have led not only to safer streets, but also to surprising improvements in the city's schools. Chicago's police department and school system have become democratic urban institutions unlike any others in America. Empowered Participation is the compelling chronicle of this unprecedented transformation. It is the first comprehensive empirical analysis of the ways in which participatory democracy can be used to effect social change. Using citywide data and six neighborhood case studies, the book explores how determined Chicago residents, police officers, teachers, and community groups worked to banish crime and transform a failing city school system into a model for educational reform. The author's conclusion: Properly designed and implemented institutions of participatory democratic governance can spark citizen involvement that in turn generates innovative problem-solving and public action. Their participation makes organizations more fair and effective.

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