Gaduh, Arya B., Nunik Yunarti, and Maulina Cahyaningrum. 2005. “Civil Service Reform in Boalemo District, Gorontalo Province (Indonesia)”. Read the case study Abstract

    Arya B. Gaduh, Nunik Yunarti, Maulina Cahyaningrum, 2005 

    Boalemo was one of the new districts created in 1999 as a result of Indonesia's decentralization policy, after which a number of districts were sub-divided. This study analyzes how the local government has improved local governance by creating improved accountability systems for civil servants through more rigorous application of rewards and sanctions, and use of enhanced mechanisms for promoting transparency.

    Tan, Eleonora Suk Mei, C. Clarita Kusharto, and Sri Budiyati. 2005. “Rewarding Educational Performance in Tanah Datar, Sumatra (Indonesia)”. Read the full report Abstract

    Eleonora Suk Mei Tan, C. Clarita Kusharto, Sri Budiyati, 2005 

    In February and March, 2005, research was carried out in Tanah Datar District, West Sumatra Province, Indonesia for one of nine case studies in support of a World Bank analytical project, "Making Services Work For the Poor." The objective of the case studies was to illustrate the impact of service delivery innovation on (a) stakeholders' behavior and (b) access to and quality of the service. The Ash Institute of Democratic Governance and Innovation at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, in collaboration with the Ford Foundation International Innovations Liaison Group, has served as a partner in this project.

    Two innovative education policies are highlighted in this case study: the Stronger Incentives Policy, which rewarded best-performing English teachers and headmasters with training and study visits overseas, and the Smaller Classes Policy, which limited class size in senior high schools to 30 students. As a result of the new policies, over 200 school staff were sent overseas, all public (but not all private) senior high schools, as well as some junior high and elementary schools, have cut class sizes. Key changes in attitude and behavior included increased motivation to do better work on the part of English teachers and headmasters, changes in teaching methodology on the part of some English teachers, increased interest in student performance on the part of teachers and headmasters, increased support for the Bupati (governor) by those who benefited from the policies, and an increase in reform mindedness of government education and school staff. Access to senior high school education decreased for some children. Changes in quality of education included improved teaching skills at the better schools, and broader educational offerings and better facilities at better schools. There was, however, an increased financial burden on some schools and teachers, and an overall increase in inequity among schools. Key to the positive impact of the reforms were changes in national government policy, the vision, imagination and leadership of the Bupati, and effective policy implementation. Factors which limited positive impact included inadequate dissemination of the new policies, lack of follow-up from study trips, the decision not to legalize the reforms, ineffective use of local government, insufficient numbers of classrooms, and no targeting of the poor and disadvantaged.


    Gaduh, Arya B., Laila Kuznezov, Janes Ginting, and Gregorius Kelik Agus Endarso. 2005. “Health Insurance Reform in Jembrana District, Bali Province, Indonesia”. Read the case study Abstract

    Arya B. Gaduh, Laila Kuznezov, Janes Ginting, Gregorius Kelik Agus Endarso, 2005 

    As part of its mandate to alleviate poverty in Indonesia, the World Bank is undertaking a series of case studies to promote better service provision, especially for poor and disadvantaged people. The case studies were chosen from the many innovative practices seen in Indonesian local government in recent years, through a competitive outreach process managed by the World Bank. Donors, non-governmental organizations, and local government staff were contacted and encouraged to submit proposals regarding innovative service delivery work that they either were undertaking or knew about.

    The Jaminan Kesehatan Jembrana (JKJ) health insurance reform scheme in Jembrana District, Bali, touches upon a theme that is central to making services more pro-poor, to wit, the use of private providers to expand service coverage and improve quality by increasing competition. The Jaminan Kesehatan Jembrana (JKJ or Jembrana Health Insurance) scheme begun in Jembrana District, Bali Province in March 2003 provides free primary healthcare to all members; free secondary and tertiary care is also provided for poor members. The scheme has improved the access of both poor and non-poor citizens to healthcare. Before JKJ, only 17 percent of district citizens were covered by any kind of health insurance; now, 63 percent are covered. The percentage of ill people who sought treatment in Jembrana more than doubled from 40 percent in 2003 to 90 percent in 2004. For the poor, the increase was from 29 to 80 percent. Increased access of the poor to health services is due primarily to the inclusion of private providers in the JKJ scheme. Though on paper, out-of-pocket healthcare costs have increased sharply for poor non-members, in practice most public providers still provide free care for all poor clients. This increases access of even non-member poor to healthcare, but subjects them to the discretion of providers who have the legal right to refuse them free services. Meanwhile, JKJ registration requirements have kept many of the poor from joining.

    JKJ's attempts to become self-financing have focused recently on a new one-membership-card-per-person system (rather than the old one-card-per-family scheme), and this is likely behind a drop in membership of the poor, from 66 percent in 2004 to 22 percent (re-registered under the new system) by May 2005, since many poor families cannot afford to re-enroll all members. By increasing access to private providers, JKJ has increased competition between public clinics and private doctors for clients. JKJ has also improved both healthcare quality and client satisfaction. It is likely that JKJ's enforcement of strict standards on equipment, treatment, medication, and referral has contributed to the improvement. JKJ does not, however, appear to be financially sustainable. There has been a rapid, unbudgeted increase in district spending on JKJ. JKJ's inclusion of non-poor citizens adds greatly to its cost--in 2004, 95 percent of the Rp. 9.5 billion in JKJ claims were made for services to non-poor clients. The informal inclusion of poor non-members also increases JKJ costs, as those who provide free services to poor non-members are in fact usually reimbursed by JKJ. Finally, investment in JKJ administration is grossly inadequate, and JKJ's legal basis is challenged by a 2004 law centralizing health insurance.


    Goldsmith, Stephen, Chris Pineda, and William B. Eimicke. 2005. “How City Hall Can Invigorate the Faith Community Around a Citywide Agenda”. Read the full report Abstract

    Stephen Goldsmith, Chris Pineda, William B. Eimicke, 2005 

    This paper examines how city governments can collaborate with faith-based organizations, and invigorate these partners, around a citywide housing agenda. Specifically, the paper explores: (1) why city hall/FBO collaborations are important; (2) what FBOs bring to housing efforts; (3) how cities can more effectively collaborate with FBOs; (4) lessons on collaboration from the various 'Unlocking Doors' cities; and, (5) a case study on city hall/FBO collaboration in the city of Nashville. The goal of this paper is to fill the gap of practical knowledge on collaborations with the faith community by presenting a framework to help city halls more intentionally leverage successful partnerships, based on lessons learned from other local cases.

    Gilberto Garcia, July 2005 

    After analyzing 271 government programs qualified as innovative through having won a national government and local management award in Mexico, and submitting a questionnaire to the 79 persons responsible for some of the best practices in the municipal government in the years 2001, 2002, and 2003, this paper identifies and analyzes variables that have a bearing on the emergence and sustainability of the innovation process in Mexico’s local governments. The results show paradoxes in the process of innovation of organizations needing to accomplish increasingly complex objectives through a lack of mechanisms to accrue intermediate and long-term technical expertise, as well as organizational learning. This paper also describes the differences in the process of innovation according to three contextual variables: organization capability, institutional development, and political and electoral competition.

    Unleashing Change: A Study of Organizational Renewal in Government

    Steven Kelman, Brookings Institution Press, 2005 

    This is a hopeful account of the potential for organizational change and improvement within government. Despite the mantra that "people resist change," it is possible to effect meaningful reform in a large bureaucracy. In Unleashing Change, public management expert Steven Kelman presents a blueprint for accomplishing such improvements, based on his experience orchestrating procurement reform in the 1990s. Kelman's focuses on making change happen on the front lines, not just getting it announced by senior policymakers. He argues that frequently there will be a constituency for change within government organizations. The role for leaders is not to force change on the unwilling but to unleash the willing, and to persist long enough for the change to become institutionalized.

    John D. Donahue, March 2005 

    In a phrase coined by Lord Bryce and popularized by Justice Louis Brandeis, America 's separate states are seen as "laboratories of democracy," giving the United States fifty channels for generating fresh new approaches to public problems. The potential advantages are apparent. But how fully this potential is realized depends on how rapidly and reliably innovations developed in each "laboratory" diffuse to other states. The literature on the diffusion of innovations is limited, and rather stale. The archives of the Innovations in American Government offer a promising but mostly untapped data set for exploring the replication of valuable innovations. Alan Gerber of Yale and Eric Patashnik of Virginia asked John D. Donahue to write a paper that exploits the history of Innovations to test alternative hypotheses about the diffusion of state-level innovations, for a major conference and book project on "American Democracy and the Political Economy of Government Performance." A research award from the Ash Institute has made it possible for him and a team of research assistants to identify state-level award winners and begin work this summer to trace the pace and pattern of their diffusion. This paper was produced as the result of a research competition open to faculty of the John F. Kennedy School of Government sponsored by the Ash Institute of Democratic Governance and Innovation.

    Kuznezov, Laila, Janes Imanuel Ginting, and Gregorius Kelik Agus Endarso. 2005. “Improving Budget Transparency in Bandung City, West Java Province, Indonesia”. Read the case study Abstract

    Laila Kuznezov, Janes Imanuel Ginting, Gregorius Kelik Agus Endarso, 2005 

    BIGS is a watchdog NGO in Bandung City, and has become well known for aggressively researching and disseminating budget data for the local government. Since BIGS began focusing on budget transparency in 2002, it has promoted greater government accountability by making citizens more aware of how government allocates and spends money. This has resulted not only in greater public awareness of government spending priorities, but elimination of budgetary allocations to some sectors that are viewed as "easily corruptible."

    From Walden to Wall Street: Frontiers of Conservation Finance
    Levitt, James N., and Lydia K. Bergen, ed. 2005. From Walden to Wall Street: Frontiers of Conservation Finance. Island Press. Visit Publisher's Site Abstract

    James N. Levitt and Lydia K. Bergen, editors, Island Press, 2005

    In the absence of innovation in the field of conservation finance, a daunting funding gap faces conservationists aiming to protect America's system of landscapes that provide sustainable resources, water, wildlife habitat, and recreational amenities. Experts estimate that the average annual funding gap will be between $1.9 billion and $7.7 billion over the next forty years. Can the conservation community come up with new methods for financing that will fill this enormous gap? Which human and financial resources will allow us to fund critical land conservation needs? From Walden to Wall Street brings together the experience of more than a dozen pioneering conservation finance practitioners to address these crucial issues. Contributors present groundbreaking ideas, including mainstreaming environmental markets; government ballot measures for land conservations; convertible tax-exempt financing; and private equity markets.

    Frederick M. Hess, 2005 

    This report draws on the 2005 Innovations in American Government education finalists to understand what meaningful innovation in the education field looks like and how to promote it. The Innovations Awards finalists include promising initiatives such as Big Picture Company's efforts to promote more personalized high school and High Tech High's effort in San Diego to develop a model that integrates technology throughout a rigorous high school curriculum. However, to date, educational innovation has had a limited reach and modest impact due in large part to a bureaucratic system that discourages entrepreneurial personalities while rewarding employees who respect the standard rules and procedures. In order to harness the power of these innovative education programs, schooling needs to be reformed so that it no longer merely tolerates entrepreneurs but fosters their efforts, rewards their successes and encourages their growth.

    Kuznezov, Laila, Janes Imanuel Ginting, and Gregorius Kelik Agus Endarso. 2005. “The Community Block Grant Program in Blitar City, East Java Province, Indonesia”. Read the full report Abstract

    Laila Kuznezov, Janes Imanuel Ginting, Gregorius Kelik Agus Endarso, 2005 

    This study evaluates the impact of the block grant program implemented in Blitar City since 2002. A community block grant program allocates a portion of the city government's budget for small projects that are disbursed directly to communities. The program was designed to increase public participation and self-management at the local level, as well as to serve as a vehicle for local officials and communities to exercise their autonomy. The block grant program initially addressed communities' immediate needs, mostly for small-scale infrastructure improvements. In the longer term, this program has the potential to empower communities to participate systematically in both the design and implementation of more effective development programs.

    Gowher Rizvi, 2005 

    The purpose of this paper is to explain the failure of constitutionalism in Bangladesh, a country which -- except perhaps for brief interludes of constitutional governments -- has remained for much of its history under arbitrary and authoritarian rule, albeit often behind a constitutional and a democratic facade. Despite going ongoing popular fervor and passion for democratic government, the Bangalis have been subjected to authoritarian rule for much of the last half century. The commitment of the Bangali to constitutionalism is well known. It is evidenced by periodic popular movement against authoritarian rule, and most dramatically demonstrated by the war of liberation in 1971. Ironically, however, the quest for constitutionalism appears to have been derailed from the very outset. The central thrust of the author's argument is that in the period from 1947 to 1971, the constitutional debate became mired by an effort of the unrepresentative (those who were not popularly elected or did not enjoy a popular mandate) ruling elites to institutionalize their dominance of the government through the manipulation of the constitutional arrangements.

    Their efforts to alter the facts of the national reality took the 'spirit' out the constitution and made a mockery of constitutional governance. This was done first by denying the Bangalis their majority status (they constituted more than half of the total population of Bangladesh) by thrusting on them the principle of representational parity with other smaller groups which placed the minority groups at par with the majority and were given representational weightage far in excess of their numbers; and subsequently, and more blatantly under the authoritarian rule of the military, by contriving to keep the authoritarian and unelected leaders in power by denying the very principle of popular elections. Once the ruling elite in Pakistan were able to do away with the need for seeking a popular mandate by various political gimmicks in place of popular elections - no general election was held in Pakistan between 1947 and 1970 - the will of the majority ceased to count.

    The author also argues that it was this constitutional failure that led Bangladesh to secede from Pakistan. And yet devoid of any constitutional culture the country was back under authoritarian rule after a brief period of constitutional government between 1972-75. Even though the constitution was never formally abrogated, it was nonetheless seriously mutilated and only the most superficial semblance of a constitutional facade was preserved. Successive military rulers, backed by unelected and self-appointed representatives, abused the constitution and acquired untrammeled power to govern without popular mandate or due constitutional processes.

    Olivia Golden, 2005

    The innovations recognized through the Innovations in American Government Awards Program are selected because they are novel, effective, significant, and replicable. But, from the perspective of improving public sector outcomes, an important next question is not about the innovations themselves but about the conditions that make them necessary. This paper draws on the cases of the Innovations Awards 2005 finalists to address two questions: Why did these ineffective practices persist until the innovation occurred? Why did innovation happen at the time that it did?

    Three major themes emerge in this report:

    1. Many different reasons--from political context to long-term underinvestment to internal agency failures--explain why problems persisted and an innovation was needed.
    2. Two of these reasons were particularly striking:
      • Failures in the political environment, such as conflicting goals or a stalemate among different political interests; and
      • Fragmented operational authority, where no one person had control of enough pieces to solve the problem.
    3. While both of these problems may seem hard to solve, the innovations offered an intriguing list of approaches to solving them, providing a useful starting point for further exploration. In particular, the solutions to fragmented operation
    Nachuk, Stefan, Maulina Cahyaningrum, Susannah Hopkins Leisher, Arya B. Gaduh, Nunik Yunarti, Lina Marliani, and Luis Fujiwara. 2005. “Creating Learning Communities for Children in Polman District, West Sulawesi Province, Indonesia”. Read the case study Abstract

    Creating Learning Communities for Children (CLCC) is a training package that focuses on school-based management, community participation, and joyful/active learning. This study traces its implementation in two schools in Polewali district in South Sumatra, since its introduction in 2001. The results indicate that CLCC had a lasting impact on improved learning practices in the school. However, no impact on test scores could be identified, parental involvement increased little, and most school committees continued to focus largely on revenue collection.

    Fung, Archon, David Weil, Mary Graham, and Elena Fagotto. 2004. “The Political Economy of Transparency: What Makes Disclosure Policies Effective?”. Read the full report Abstract

    Archon Fung, David Weil, Mary Graham and Elena Fagotto, December 2004 

    Transparency systems have emerged in recent years as a mainstream regulatory tool, an important development in social policy. Transparency systems are government mandates that require corporations or other organizations to provide the public with factual information about their products and practices. Such systems have a wide range of regulatory purposes which include protecting investors, improving public health and safety, reducing pollution, minimizing corruption and improving public services.

    Elaine Kamarck, November 2003

    For some countries government reform and innovation involves the reform of an old bureaucracy in the context of a newly democratic state. For other countries, this entails an all out fight against corruption. For still other countries, the challenge is to modernize large, outmoded bureaucracies and bring them into the information age. While countries have come to government reform for very different reasons, government reform and innovation is a global phenomenon. This paper provides a review of government innovations undertaken in the last 20 years in many countries around the world including the United States.

    Steven Kelman, May 2004

    The need for government organizations to change how they work is a major theme among practitioners and observers of government, discussed informally and repeated constantly at conferences for practitioners. The need for organizational change is also a preoccupying theme in the business world. But the impetus for change in government is somewhat different. In the private sector, the assumption is that the organization's current performance is good, but that shifts in the organization's environment demands changes in what the organization produces or how it produces it. In government, by contrast, the impetus for organizational change is typically that current performance isn't what it should be. Government isn't working as well as it should, and organizational change is needed to improve performance.

    Despite the Odds: The Contentious Politics of Education Reform

    Merilee S. Grindle, Princeton University Press, 2004

    Despite the Odds poses an important question: How can we account for successful policy reform initiatives when the political cards are stacked against change? Theories of politics usually predict that reform initiatives will be unsuccessful when powerful groups are opposed to change and institutions are biased against it. This book, however, shows how the strategic choices of reform proponents alter the destinies of policy reforms by reshaping power equations and undermining institutional biases that impede change. Despite the Odds opens the "black box" of decision making in five initiatives designed to enhance the quality of education services in Latin America. The book addresses the strategies used by reformers to manage the political process of change and those adopted by opposition groups and institutions resisting their efforts.

    Despite the Odds: The Contentious Politics of Education Reform

    Merilee S. Grindle, Princeton University Press, 2004

    Despite the Odds poses an important question: How can we account for successful policy reform initiatives when the political cards are stacked against change? Theories of politics usually predict that reform initiatives will be unsuccessful when powerful groups are opposed to change and institutions are biased against it. This book, however, shows how the strategic choices of reform proponents alter the destinies of policy reforms by reshaping power equations and undermining institutional biases that impede change. Despite the Odds opens the "black box" of decision making in five initiatives designed to enhance the quality of education services in Latin America. The book addresses the strategies used by reformers to manage the political process of change and those adopted by opposition groups and institutions resisting their efforts.