Wetland Wastewater Treatment: Arcata, CA – 1987 Innovations Winner

    In 1974, the small city of Arcata, California, learned that a new state policy would soon forbid the release of its treated wastewater into Humboldt Bay unless it could prove that the wastewater “enhanced“ the bay. That same year the Humboldt Bay Wastewater Authority was formed to devise a federal- and state-funded regional approach to wastewater disposal. By 1976, Arcata realized it had a serious problem on its hands: if the city hooked up to the proposed HBWA treatment plant, sewer bills would double in the near future and would probably continue to climb. Moreover, the huge sewage pipes mapped to run between Arcata and Eureka and under the bay’s shipping channels could allow unwanted strip development of the rural area between the cities and might even lead to an ecological disaster. But if Arcata decided to go its own way, it would be subject to a building moratorium and other penalties unless it could overcome the undefined “enhancement“ requirement. The case tells the story of Arcata's long political struggle to derail the planned regional sewage treatment plant and force federal and state regulators to accept its own, unconventional local alternative. It raises questions as to how to recognize innovation and the nature of bureaucratic cultures which discourage innovation. It also raises the question of whether community based opposition might be too heavily weighted in the political process.

    One Church/One Child Minority Adoption Campaign: Illinois – 1986 Innovations Winner

    In 1980, the Illinois Department of Children and Family Services faced a crisis. Over 700 black children in Cook County, including 69 infants, waited for adoption while the agency was unable to find black parents. Director Gregory L. Color, with his deputy gordon Johnson, approached Father George Clements, a black activist Chicago priest in the Baptist community. From those meetings came One Church, One Child, a plan to use pastors of the black churches as spokesmen to reach the community. Coler and Johnson faced several hurdles as they asked a private religious institution to help solve a public agency’s problem. They had to change negative attitudes both in the black community; which had grown to distrust the state agency, and among a staff suspicious of change who would implement the black adoption program. They had to revamp state laws that inhibited the adoption process. And they had to change bureaucratic procedures that had proven ineffective. The accompanying video exhibit brings to life the successful strategy of the One Church, One Child program, focusing on a presentation in a black church designed to encourage adoptions. In addition, the video includes retrospective comments from the program's administrators and vignettes of families who have adopted children as a result of the program. This case will challenge students to examine the assumptions that limit bureaucracies. Available in Spanish translation.

    Case Management for At-Risk Children in Detention: New York, NY – 1986 Innovations Winner

    This “Innovations in State and Local Government“ case begins in January 1983, when Ellen Schall is appointed commissioner of New York City’s Department of Juvenile Justice, an agency in upheaval. DJJ was established to detain seven- to fifteen-year-old children between arrest and adjudication. Most of DJJ’s charges are held in a 25-year-old secure detention facility called “Spofford,“ a notoriously violent and dilapidated facility in the South Bronx. The case describes the situation as Schall walks into it. In addition to internal tensions and significant operational problems in every division, the agency has a history of bad press and feuds with City Hall. The department is also struggling with deep-seated racial and class tensions among employees, and with great confusion over its mission. The case ends with Schall planning to speak to a new group of juvenile counselors, trying to articulate her vision for the agency. The case offers students the chance to diagnose the ills of the agency and to chart a strategic course of action. Among the topics for debate: How should Schall go about assembling an executive team? How should she address the confusion over agency mission? What should she do about racial tensions? How involved should she get with the nitty-gritty operational problems of her agency’s divisions?

    Strive Toward Excellence in Performance: Minnesota – 1986 Innovations Winner

    On February 13, 1984, Minnesota Commissioner of Administration Sandra J. Hale told a group of some 200 state managers that her department would soon launch a program to improve the ”effectiveness and productivity” of state government. Hale and many other government leaders believed that past initiatives – usually focused either on cost-cutting or on management schemes developed by private sector executives – had failed to generate significant, lasting change in the performance of state government. She christened the new program ”STEP” (Strive Toward Excellence and Productivity, later renamed Strive Toward Excellence in Performance) specifically to distinguish it from a 1971 productivity initiative called ”LEAP” (the Loaned Executive Action Program), which was still remembered bitterly by many state workers. STEP would rely on ideas generated within the bureaucracy, Hale told the managers, and would create more cooperative partnerships between the public and private sectors. This decision-forcing case focuses on administrators charged with the task of designing the STEP program and challenges students to consider how to institutionalize innovation in government. Students will be asked to identify the political and institutional obstacles to innovative management and to consider what it would take to authorize – and galvanize – managers to approach their divisions in fresh, creative ways.

    Strive Toward Excellence in Performance: Minnesota – 1986 Innovations Winner

    When Denise Fleury left the insurance industry to become head of the Minnesota Office of State Claims in June 1984, she knew the job would be challenging. Recent changes in state law had changed and broadened the mission of the state claims office, which administered workers’ compensation benefits for all state employees. Fleury soon found herself scrambling to cope with day-to-day crises while trying to take on a host of new tasks. Through Fleury’s eyes, students will see the dilemmas that confronted the young manager and how she tackled them during her first year. This part of the case is a good introduction to how a manager creates organizational capacity. They will also see that at the end of her first year – despite significant progress – internal office procedures remained frustrating and confusing. The case ends here, giving students the chance to discuss what Fleury should do next, and how she might use various resources strategically in State Claims. This case provides an interesting counterpart to Striving Toward Excellence in the State of Minnesota (C16-87-737.0). In the Denise Fleury case, from the perspective of a mid-level manager, students can take another look at STEP as it was actually developed, to see whether it looks like a useful and attractive resource.

    In the fall of 1986, the World Bank offered the government of Indonesia a loan of approximately US $200-250 million for highway construction in the capital city of Jakarta and the country's other four largest urban centers. It was an attractive proposal: plummeting world oil prices had squeezed the national treasury, which had derived about 60 percent of its revenues from Indonesian oil profits. But for much the same reason, Indonesia's Ministry of Finance felt compelled to find new revenue sources to repay the loan.