The following T4D publications are listed in chronological order of publication.

Transparency for Development - Results and Implications 

Jessica Creighton, Jean Arkedis, Archon Fung, Stephen Kosack, Dan Levy & Courtney Tolmie; January 2021

This paper aims to outline the research questions and findings of the Transprency for Development Project as well as key takeaways for policymakers and donors concerned with health outcomes; social accountability practioners; global advocates of social accountability; and researchers. 


Insights from Transparency and Accountability Action Plans in Indonesia and TanzaniaPolicy brief paper cover featuring the title and graphic of a globe

Jessica Creighton, Jean Arkedis, Archon Fung, Stephen Kosack, Dan Levy & Courtney Tolmie; January 2020

This paper provides insight into community designed and led actions in Indonesia and Tanzania that were prompted by Transparency for Development (T4D), a six-year research project that explores whether, how, and in what conditions “transparency and accountability” or “social accountability” programs improve maternal and newborn health care.


Can Transparency and Accountability Programs Improve Health?RCT Paper

Faculty Research Working Paper Series, Arkedis, J. Creighton, J. Dixit, A. Fung, A. Kosack, S. Levy, D. Tolmie, C. 

This paper summarizes our assessment of the impact of a transparency and accountability program designed to improve maternal and newborn health (MNH) outcomes in Indonesia and Tanzania. We find that on average, this program did not have a statistically significant impact on the use or content of maternal and newborn health services, nor the sense of civic efficacy or civic participation among recent mothers in the communities who were offered it. Our assessment is that the main explanation for the lack of impact is that few communities were able to traverse the complex causal paths from planning actions to accomplishing tangible improvements in their access to quality health care. 


Encouraging ParticipationEncouraging Participation

Working Paper, Kosack, S. Bridgman, G. Creighton, J. Tolmie, C. Fung, A.

This paper examines the experiences of participants in an intervention whereby NGOs, with external support, offer information about underperforming public services to the citizens they are inteded to benefit, and then encourage them to participate in alleviating those deficiencies. Arguments and evidence for this approach are mixed, and we explore these possibilities by examining the experiences of participants in an externally supported experimental program designed to encourage them to improve maternal and newborn health care in 200 communities across multiple regions of Tanzania and Indonesia.


Transparency for Development: Pre-Analysis Plan

Bombyk, M. Creighton, J. Dixit, A. Levy, D. & Roots, L. April 2018Pre-Analysis Plan

This document specifies how the T4D team will evaluate the effects of the Transparency for Development program intervention on a range of maternal health and community participation outcomes as well as intermediate or process outcomes. The plan was written and submitted after baseline data collection and the implementation of the intervention, but prior to the start of endline data collection. 


Citizen Voices, Community Solutions: Designing Better Transparency and Accountability Approaches to Improve Health

Working Paper, Transparency for Development Project Team, 2017Citizen Voices

Building off of early findings from phase one of the T4D project, this concept outlines the team's approach to test adapted models of the intervention in new contexts to understand whether community-led transparency and accountability interventions can be designed to better facilitate community actions targeting higher-lever government actors. This brief outlines the process through which we developed these adapted designed and what we will be testing in phase two of the project.


Phase 2 Evaluation Design

Working Paper, Transparency for Development Project Team, 2017Phase 2 Evaluation Design

This paper describes our approach to the evaluation of small pilots in three Phase 2 countries, designed for exploring, through small-scale experimentation, focused design changes to an intervention of a common and widely evaluated kind that has shown early promise in two large-scale experimental trials.



Transparency for Development Intervention Design

Working Paper, Transparency for Development Project Team, 2016Intervention Design

This working paper details the Transparency for Development Phase I intervention, focusing on the intervention design and components.  This paper will pair with upcoming briefs that we are developing in the process of co-designing the intervention with partners in Tanzania and Indonesia as well as the guidelines and tradeoffs that the team faced in designing this intervention.


Baseline Report

Transparency for Development Project Team, September 2016Baseline Report

This report describes the baseline data findings for Indonesia and Tanzania, and their implications for the evaluation design. This data collection was part of the broader effort to evaluate the impact of the T4D interventions in these two countries.



Evaluation Design Report

Working Paper, Transparency for Development Project Team, 2015Evaluation Design Report

This report outlines the mixed methods evaluation design by which the T4D intervention, aimed at improving citizen empowerment and maternal and neonatal health in rural Tanzanian and Indonesian communities, will be assessed. This includes randomized control trials (RCTs), extensive case studies, focus groups, key informant interviews, surveys and ethnographic methods, which enable T4D to process-trace exactly how the interventions triggered—or failed to trigger—improvements in health care and changes in power dynamics and community relations.


Does Transparency Improve Governance?

Annual Review of Political Science, Vol. 17, pp. 65-87, Kosack and Fung, 2014Gov and Transparency

In this article, we characterize and assess the evolution of transparency from an end in itself to a tool for resolving increasingly practical concerns of governance and government performance. After delineating four distinct varieties of transparency, we focus on the type that has received the most rigorous empirical scrutiny from social scientists—so-called “transparency and accountability” (T/A) interventions intended to improve the quality of public services and governance in developing countries.


Transparency for Development: Intervention Design and Evaluation Approach

Working Paper, Kosack and Fung, 2013Int Design

This discussion paper outlines a recently started mixed method research program to assess whether, why, and in what contexts transparency and accountability (T/A) interventions improve health outcomes. The project is intended to advance the state of knowledge about the impact of T/A interventions on service delivery by developing a new T/A intervention that is designed to be flexible enough to work across multiple contexts, and by designing and implementing mixed-methods evaluations of this intervention in multiple sites. These findings will provide the basis for development of a more nuanced and empirically grounded theory of the impact of T/A — both the different mechanisms through which T/A interventions seek to affect development outcomes, and the conditions under which these mechanisms should be expected to improve service delivery.